Understanding the concept of Digital signature certificate (DSC)

Digital signature certificate is meant to electronically authenticate your identity. It offers high level of security during online transactions by safeguarding the privacy of the information you exchange. Digital signature certificates can be used to encrypt information meant exclusively for the intended recipient. Digital signatures can let the recipient know that the document is not changed during transit and also it can help the recipient verify your identity as the sender of the message.  In other words, all electronic documents need digital signature. Digital signatures are issued by authorities licensed under Section 24 of the Indian IT-Act 2000.

Identity theft wherein someone else is pretending to be you by using your identity to get the credit and other benefits in your name is a great threat to online transactions. Under this process, the persons committing identity theft, fraud or crimes might use your id and credit card number without your permission. While identity theft can damage your finance and reputation, Digital Signature Certificates (DSC) can serve as the most reliable tools to enhance Cyber Security. DSC employs complex algorithms and generates two asymmetric keys namely public and private key. The public key is made available publicly. While the private key is used to sign the documents or online transactions, the public key is used to verify the signature.

There are three kinds of Digital Signature Certificates including Class 3, Class 2, DGFT. Class 3 DSC can be used for e-Tendering, e-Procurement, e-Ticketing, and filing of trademark or patent application. Class 2 DSC can be used for filing ROC/MCA Forms and IT returns filing, and for signing Form 16/16A. DGFT DSC is useful for importers and exporters. Individuals can get DSC after an identity verification process that is implemented by the Information Technology Act in India. DSC is used as an authenticating tool in India during statutory e-filings and electronic banking. Since they carry a legal sanctity, DSCs can serve as evidence under the law.

The ultimate benefits of digital signature can be summed up under two heads as follows:

  1. Authentication:

Usually, all messages contain the information about the sender. However, this information cannot always be deemed precise. Under this circumstance, digital signature can offer a fool proof authentication regarding the source of the message. At times when the proprietor of a secret key for a digital signature is connected to a particular user, a valid signature attests the fact that the message was sent by that particular user only. Especially in the context of financial transactions, the high confidence pertaining to the authenticity of the sender of the message is clearly reinforced by digital signature.

  1. Integrity

Digital signature’s role is crucially evident under circumstances when both the sender and the recipient of a message need to ensure that the communication has not been altered during delivery. Though encryption can be used to hide the contents in a message, it is not impossible to change the encryption even without understanding it. However if a message is digitally signed, any alteration of the same will turn the signature invalid and could therefore revel the fraud.

Business Formation in India

Starting a business is a highly tricky process involving a number of crucial decisions that will decide the course your business is likely to take. For instance, you will need to decide the kind of organization you will set up, registering your firm and getting approvals, and streamlining the business processes after registration. Planning and carrying out these steps rightly is the first step in realizing your entrepreneurial dreams. Over and above, to do certain businesses in India it is mandatory to obtain registration/license/permission from the concerned regulatory authorities. Registering your business can only open the doors to inviting investments, getting bank loans and creating a corporate image.

The various kinds of business formations in India include Private limited, Public limited, One man company, General Partnership, Limited liability partnership, and Section 25 companies. The challenge lies in deciding what type of business set up will ideally suit your business, the structure you visualize and your specific situation. It is rather the job of accomplished and qualified professionals to guide you on these aspects since there are a lot of complexities involved in the decision. Since you need to take thoroughly informed decision, you will need the support of highly knowledge professionals in the field who too enjoy a clear insight into the legalities involved now and also later during the development of the firm. Therefore, never underestimate the need to obtain professional guidance on this matter.

When you start a business, you will have to first sit with a team of well experienced Company Secretaries and Chartered Accountants who have hands on experience in offering the right kind of solutions for diverse kinds of companies. In the first step, they can grasp your exact vision and requirements and suggest you the right kind of set up. Then on your behalf, they will undertake to draft the application, prepare the support documents, liaison with the authorities, solve the queries and get the registration certificate right on your table. However, you need to do an independent research too by getting to know the basics of business formation.

Businesses being formed in India can be registered as any one of the following entities:

  • Private Limited Company
  • Public Limited Company
  • Unlimited Company
  • Limited Liability Partnership (LLP)
  • Partnership
  • Sole Proprietorship
  • Liaison Office/Representative Office
  • Project Office
  • Branch Office
  • Joint Venture Company
  • Subsidiary Company

Entrepreneurs both from India and abroad can form Private Limited Company, Public Limited Company, Unlimited Company, Sole Proprietorship, Limited Liability Partnership (LLP), and Partnership Company. Foreign firms can choose from the options such as Liaison Office or Representative Office, Project Office, Branch Office, or Joint Venture Company. Foreign investors require special licenses and permissions and it is an altogether comprehensive topic to discuss elsewhere.

Business formation in India requires a number of initial steps like getting approval from the Registrar of Companies (ROC); getting the Memorandum of Association and Articles of Association vetted, stamped and printed; getting the certificate of incorporation; obtaining a company seal, Permanent Account Number and Tax Account Number; registering under Shops and Establishments Act, Value Added Tax (VAT), Professional Tax, Employees Provident Fund and ESIC (medical Insurance). Once these steps are completed, you are on your royal road to do a successful business in India.

Best new business ideas

Needs of people in particular and the society in general are constantly evolving and this fact gives rise to the scope of starting new types of businesses. If you have decided to do some business, there are a number of great business ideas that you can make work. While people do different types and classes of businesses, most businesses require a number of support services. If you can capitalize on these kinds of requirements, then probably you have found a good business idea. Let us talk of one such good business here. Manpower organizations have grown to day to gigantic proportions. A large number of organizations require their services. These organizations supply manpower across diverse kinds of requirements and job profiles available with the employers.

On one side there are a number of people looking miserably for jobs, while there are employers who search for suitable candidates for several positions vacant with them. The role of a manpower organization is to match these two requirements and see to that the candidates are placed in the job that they can do well. His will benefit the employees as well the employers. Thus, manpower organizations are into a very important task.

A manpower organization can be started with less investment or as much investment you can think of depending on your decision. However, the best idea is to start the venture in a small scale with less investment. You just need computer systems to store the data pertaining to positions available and the candidates’ profiles. You can communicate with the employers and employees either online or offline and match people and positions. Manpower organizations accept commissions for the services they provide. If you are successful in supplying the right kind of people for the right kind of positions, then the candidates and companies will regularly come to your repeatedly for their subsequent requirements and thus you can do a good job.

Best small business idea

If you are looking for best small business idea, then you must do some ground work. While intending to find a business of your own business, you have made the right decision in your life. Small businesses do not carry the hassles that big ventures do carry. This is because small businesses carry lesser risks and need lesser investments. You have enough scope to experiment newer strategies with small businesses and in this regard you face little risks and almost a vast amount of freedom. When you have decided to become an entrepreneur, sit with yourself silently on a trouble free day with a paper and pen. Left to yourself, you must now do some brain storming to gather good ideas. No one is new to business. You would have come across a number of businesses in your life. The society is replete with ideas and you have to cull out the best and choose the one you deem right for yourself.

When you wish to do a small business, first you need to list out your interests and preferences. This is because, life is not just about earning and there is no use of any business that takes away the fun from your life. When you do something that you enjoy, lie and love, you can perform better than others and your venture can be successful with less efforts. When you turn your hobby into business, you can really make the maximum out of your life. Therefore, it is important that the first business idea stems from your own inner self. Naturally you will tend to appreciate those businesses that echo your heart’s passions. So list our t those ventures that have attracted you. Derive inspiration from them and give vent to your creative ideas to improve upon them and you have the seed to plant that could grow into huge proportions.

Best small business ideas

Best small business ideas are those that require less investment, carry lesser risks and fetch good profits. If you are venturing into a new small business, there are lot of sources from which you can gather your ideas. For every effort, inspiration is very important. You just look out far and wide into the society and explore the businesses that are already there. A few will certainly appeal to you more than others since they would reflect your inner passions. If you are drawn towards appreciating a particular business that someone does, then probably it will be your cup of tea. With such ventures, you can certainly perform better than others. It is always good to start with your own investment and your own idea whatever little it could be. Partnership is not a good idea for small businesses. You must after all have the freedom to choose your own course of action and be able to do what your heart says.

Setting up a small business must be done carefully to be successful. The success line is always near for those people who are willing to spare good amount of effort sincerely and diligently. Proper planning will let you escape from the pitfalls. No venture is free from risks and as an entrepreneur never be afraid to take up risks and face challenges. After all they are the spice of life and they will add up to your experience in the long run and make you strong and capable. However, there is no point in being blind to the realities of life and this is very much true with businesses. You must be cautious in every move that you take. Learn from the experiences of people and also understand that your venture is unique and will always require custom solutions depending on the situation of your business. Therefore, you must apply the ideas with enough forethought and not just copy. Once you do this, you are bound to be victorious.

Best small business

There are a number of people looking forward to set up best small business. Small businesses are highly interesting. While starting a small business, a good amount of ground work is needed from your side. You can choose a business that you can do with your family members. If all the members in your family like a particular business, then it can be a paradise for you all. If your family has already done some business, then it is really good to improve upon the same concept further to suit the present day circumstances. Ask your parents whether they can suggest you some business. Ask your life partner whether he or she has passion to do a particular business. Those ideas that come from your own family members could be more genuine than those got from other people outside. In fact, your family members are those that are going to support you in the long run and it always makes sense to listen to them and derive some inspiration from them.

There are a number of families doing business together. By choosing a business that is liked and supported by your family, you are actually saving a lot of money you will have to spend on the salaries of people that you must employ to support your business activity. When you venture into a small business, be careful not to waste too much money in the initial stage on overheads. Your over enthusiasm should express itself in planning and execution and not in wasteful expenses that will ruin the purpose of your business. At a point, poor planning and spending too much should not lead you to loss that you cannot sustain and overcome. On the other hand, if you are careful, then you will find yourself in a comfortable position to experiment with several good options and work out your way meticulously.

Best own business ideas

Though there are a lot of best own business ideas, there are a few that stem from the recurring needs of people. Such businesses cater to meet the day to day needs of people and can therefore generate money perennially. Once you develop a customer base, then you can hope to do a thriving business with lucrative income. Let us now focus on establishing your own petty shop. Petty shops can be set up with little investment. To start with, identify the essential commodities like toilet items, basic groceries, snacks and basic necessities for daily life. You can set up a petty shop in th frontage of your own house or can rent out a small space in a convenient locality. Petty shops cannot sell goods like hot cakes in the beginning stage. You need to reach out people. Once the people know that you are selling quality goods at affordable prices, they will certainly come to you. In the long run, if your prices are competitive to the prices of commodities sold by bigger shops in the town, then there are chances that the people will like to depend on you for their monthly grocery needs rather than shopping for them at distant places and transporting them. Therefore, the success of a petty shop depends on how well you are able to cater to the needs of people.

You will certainly need the assistance of more people to support your petty shop once it picks up. They could be either employees or people from your own families. In most families, husband and wife share the chores connected to their shop and run them so effectively that they make a highly profitable venture from their petty shops. Petty shops are always interesting and you are your own boss to decide the course you would like to take and the commodities you want to sell. More than selling, the acts of going for purchasing, interacting with suppliers and regular customers and planning for innovative strategies are all great fun that can add more flavor to your daily life.

Best IT business ideas

Information technology also called as IT has become integral part of every sphere of human activity. It is rather very hard to imagine a field where IT is not used. When we talk of IT, we mean the hardware and software systems that generate, process, store and transmit data across geographies through computer aided technology. There are a number of IT businesses you can think of. Most IT businesses support existing businesses in simplifying the tasks that they need to perform. To decide what could be the best IT business for you, you must first understand what you have learnt. If you have mastered some software platform, you could base your business on that program. Today, businesses need a lot of programs to automate their businesses. If you could design some useful software for them in a custom way, you could make a good business out of it. IT business could also mean hardware repair, support and maintenance services. You need to first ensure you have the necessary training to take up some IT business. Even if you do not have any, there are a number of courses that you can pursue and learn the basics in the field you choose and you can develop it further as your career.

The prerequisites of an IT business include the necessary training, the office set up, the systems that you want, the programs that you work on, support staff with the necessary training and experience, investment to sustain the business till it catches up, provision of resources for upgrading hardware, training and software and others. You need to meticulously plan every minute detail connected to your IT business based on these guidelines. You can make a lucrative business only when you have created a customer base and you are able to market your services well among a larger group. Till then you need to pursue the venture with patience and forethought.

Best idea for business

The best business is something that capitalizes on the impending needs of people and generates good profits for less effort and investment. A large number of people aspire to become entrepreneurs, but a few only succeed in their endeavour. The reason is that succeeding in business depends on a thoughtful decision based on a thorough understanding of the customer behavior and needs. Once this is taken care, people can do a good job with any business they take up. Given all this, the percentage of people who are willing to take risks is very less and therefore there are a not enough business attempts in proportion to the population out there.

Business scenario differs from locality to locality. What will make a good business in a given location might not hold good for others too. Also, what is a good business for someone might not be a good one for others. Therefore, what is best business depends on the person venturing and the place chosen. Every business venture must be based on a good amount of market research. There is nothing wrong in learning from the experience of others who have already established themselves in the arena. This will let you avoid the pit falls that they had faced and encash on the experience they had already bagged. However, while getting ideas from such people you must always ensure they give an objective advice without misguiding or misdirecting you. Know that no one who is already in the arena would like to see a new competitor and therefore might not give a reliable advice. You must therefore apply your discretion to apply what they say in a real life scenario. At the same time, talking to a few prospective customers will be highly useful in opening your eyes to their real needs. Once you have done the necessary ground work and satisfied that the venture you take up is up to your liking, then you can plunge in the business confidently.

Interview with Neeraj Jain, co-founder of Zopper

Zopper needs no introduction but the below image sums it up pretty nicely. If you have been troubled, confused and confabulated by different advice given by your friends, unauthentic reviews on various ecommerce sites, and also by boisterous ads that show on every nook and corner, Zopper may prove to be the panacea for your shopping pains.




There is no doubt that the figures will keep increasing in the future and more and more users would be using Zopper to intelligently search before their actually shop.


Neeraj JainWe talked to the co-founder of this great app, Neeraj Jain, to get some insight of their vision and strategy.

Q1. What was the main motivation of starting Zopper and how you chose the name?

Buying a product is a disjointed experience – it’s a pain to browse through multiple e-commerce sites or sift through stores for prices & features, to search or ask for reviews, to find an expert when you’re not familiar with a product’s specs, to scout for deals, etc. To bridge all these gaps was the main motivation behind starting Zopper.

Zopper is a play on the word ‘Shopper’. Also, it’s hip & easy to remember.


Q2. What’s the business model for you don’t sell online?

Our objective is to drive business to mom-&-pop stores (SMEs) that contribute to 90% of commerce in India. Hence, we intend to earn money by taking a small share of the business that we drive to them.


Q3. What your customers have to say about you?

Our customers typically think of us as the ‘Google’ of shopping, as the 1-stop destination for all their shopping needs.

We also think of SME merchants as our customers & most of them are happy that we’re incrementally contributing to their business.


Q4. Any plans or new features in the future?

We’re expanding at a rapid pace & aim to hit 25 lac users & 2.5 lac SME retailers across the country. If you’re a SME retailer & not on our platform already, you should drop us a line at merchant@zopper.com. If you’re a shopper, download our app at https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.zopperapp.


Q5. A message for upcoming entrepreneurs?

Think big & take calculated risks – don’t underestimate your gut feel.

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